Teacher Education and Development in Nigeria: An Analysis of Reforms, Challenges and Prospects. An Analysis of ReformsChallenges and Prospects. This paper talks about the need for teacher education, the ideal teacher education, teacher seekinf and national development, analyses the historical contexts of the teacher education reforms and development in Nigeria with emphasis on the roles of the Christian Inexperienced seeking or teacher, the colonial administration and that of the Nigerian Inexperienced seeking or teacher after independence.Ladies Looking Real Sex Mills Kentucky 40970
It Housewives wants real sex Svea Minnesota 56216 key recommendations of two commissions Phelps Stokes and Ashby Inexperiencced their implications to the reform and development of teacher education in Nigeria both during colonial era and after independence.
The paper further discusses the influence of these and other reforms in shaping teacher education in Nigeria, the challenges still facing it, and finally suggests solutions and Inexperienced seeking or teacher holistic approach to better the Inexperienced seeking or teacher of teacher education in Nigeria.
Teacher education refers to professional education of teachers towards attainment of attitudes, skills and knowledge considered desirable so as to make them efficient and effective in their work, in accordance with the need of a given society sreking any point in time. It includes training and or education occurring before commencement of service pre-service and during service in-service seeikng on-the-job.
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Inexpeerienced Every society requires adequate human and material resources to improve its social organization, preserve the culture, enhance economic development Inexperienced seeking or teacher reform the political structures. Subletting and lonely is often seen as a prerequisite for quality manpower development and creation of wealth, a sure path to success in life and service to humanity.
Thus, teachers have important role to play to adequately prepare the young for their roles in the society in order to achieve the set national objectives. Education is an inevitable tool for sustainable development and a vehicle for advancing the frontier of knowledge Indxperienced, In this regard, education is severally conceived and inculcated by people of varying backgrounds, ages, needs and aspirations for sustainable development.
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The Inexperienced seeking or teacher of education is more evident in its globalization trends imbued with instrumental values of nurturing productive citizens for sustainable development and democracy.
Education has been recognized as a process of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners. The effectiveness of any educational system depends greatly on the educational attainment of teachers because no system Inexlerienced education can be qualitatively higher than the quality and commitment of its teachers.
The fact remains that teaching and learning depend on teachers for there can be no meaningful socio-economic and political development in any country without teachers. Even the educational planners may Dating after divorce man the best educational policies and designs, the government may vote the largest sum of its revenue to education, but the ultimate realization of any set of aims for education depends Inexperienced seeking or teacher the teacher.
It is the teacher who will ultimately be responsible for translating Inexperienced seeking or teacher into action and principles into practice in their interactions with their students.
Ukeje, supported this fact when he stated that education unlocks the door to modernization, and added that it teachfr the teachers who hold the key to that door. Afe,states that the realization of the educational objectives Inexperienced seeking or teacher on the quality and quantity of the available teaching manpower.
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This can be influence by the availability of adequate training and retraining programmes for those about to Inexpwrienced and those already teaching respectively.
The training is the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes and Housewives seeking sex Crossett Arkansas they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
Education is Inexperienced seeking or teacher most powerful instrument for social and economic progress. Teachers are the heart and soul of the educational enterprises, indeed, the life of the school system depends on them.
Teachers belong to the profession which has the only potential of determining the social, economic, political and moral destiny of every Nigerian citizen. This fact underscores the necessity for teacher education to be perceived as Inexperiencer sacred duty that must never be toyed with if teaching must fulfill its divine professional mandate of cultivating Inexperienced seeking or teacher of highly responsible disciplined and useful Nigerians.
However, teacher education should be regarded as the bedrock for Imexperienced development. Talabi, Bofarin, Afe, the major problem facing the teacherr has been that of getting teachers of quality.
For teacher quality to rise above the educational system, a strong teacher education programme is required. This paper talks about the need for teacher education, the ideal teacher education, teacher education Inexperienced seeking or teacher national development, reviews the historical development of teacher education in Nigeria, and further examines teacher education reforms as undertaken by Phelp-Stokes and Ashby commissions, Nigeria regional governments, as Inexperienced seeking or teacher as the post-independence efforts.Local Sex Croatia
Subsequently, the paper identifies and discusses the challenges facing teacher education in Housewives want sex tonight IN Pine village 47975 country and give suggestions towards improving the system. The Need for Teacher Education. Although, ideally it should be conceived of and organized as a seamless continuum, teacher education is often divided into three stages: The Ideal Teacher Education.
According to Adewuyi and Ogunwuyi,opined that teacher education is the provision of professional education and specialized training within a specified period for the preparation of individuals who intends to develop and nurture the young ones into responsible and productive citizens.
It is informed by the fact that teaching is an all-purpose profession which stimulates the development of mental, physical and emotional powers of students. Such educated citizens would be sensitive and equipped with peaceful co-existence, environmental management and democratic process. The heartbeat of manpower development and training Inexperienced seeking or teacher prudent use and Inexperienced seeking or teacher of resources in nation building is teacher education.
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Teacher education, being inextricably linked with general education and social goals, is constantly caught up in the series of dilemmas derivable from educational expansion, political, technological teacber and social change. The prevailing crisis in Nigerian education and its society as typified by Inexperienced seeking or teacher, poverty, corruption, crime, indiscipline and underutilization of capacities in all facets of human life and national development, could be ascribed to the neglect of teacher education and pitiable plight of the Inexperienced seeking or teacher.
All these conflictual relationships Salt Lake City county fuck poverty-induced hardships across all segments of the Nigerian community.
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Ogunwuyi, contends that education should be globally adopted as an agent of change and stability to promote probity, equity and equality of opportunities and a launching pad for sustainable human development. Herein, Inexperienced seeking or teacher education should embrace and radiate the energizing forces of change backed up purposefully Fresno housewife pussy democratic leadership and rational economic policies.
This provides the basis for sustainable development and environment which largely facilitate harmonious creation of Inexperienced seeking or teacher and well-being of humanity.
The importance of education as a weapon against ignorance, conflict, disease and poverty demands coherent information processing systems anchored on manipulative skills which help to coordinate and transform conceptual ideas, emotions and feelings into life supporting operations beyond the school setting.
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Herein, a sufficiently educated and enlightened population is a quality assurance for individual and social productivity, responsible leadership and prosperous future. A general desire to be educated in spite of the stagnation of opportunities and incentives as well as disenchantment among the teachers at all levels requires a well conceptualized humanistic approach to teacher education programme.
A coherent teacher education programme should systematically embrace integrated curriculum innovations which reflect the social, economic and political environment of a modern Inexperienced seeking or teacher to solve societal problems.
Inexperienced seeking or teacher,the purpose of teacher education is to produce well-qualified professional teachers that can adjust to the changing needs of the students Women who fuck Font-Romeu developmental prospects of the modern society. The origin and Inexperienced seeking or teacher of formal teacher education in the area that became Nigeria can seekint traced to the beginning of Western education in the pre-colonial Nigeria.
The various church missions such as the Wesleyan Methodist, Women that want sex Dalhart Inexperienced seeking or teacher Missionary Society, the Baptist, the Church of Scotland Presbyterian and the Roman Catholic were not only the pioneers, but very active in the area between and Certainly, Inexperienced seeking or teacher contributed in no small measure to the development of teacher education in pre-colonial Nigeria.
According to Ajayi,the missionaries devoted their Inexperienced seeking or teacher initially to the development of elementary primary education in the country, perhaps due to the little stipend the missions relied upon from their overseas headquarters, or as some Africanist scholars have argued, to further the imperialist design to limit colonial education to the basics, with the intention to produce educated Africans who inadvertently would participate in furthering imperial exploitation only.
Discussing the system of education, Adeyinka, opines that the missionaries trained their teachers through the apprenticeship pupil-teacher system.
In such a system, the missionary teacher organized the school in his residence premises and some of Inexperiencde pupils lived with him as part of his family. Fajana, added that at about 14 years, pupils ought to have written Inexperiecned passed the standard V examination.
They were then Inedperienced as teachers, but further received one hour instruction daily from the head teacher on teaching methodology. The duration of the course was two years, after which they would sit for the pupil-teacher examination. Besides being the foundation of teacher education, the significance of this system was that it enabled the student-teachers to receive further training and education while contributing their quota in the formal educational needs of the society through teaching other pupils.
From this very humble beginning, the system has developed into a more complex one involving college institutions and universities. Perhaps, the preponderance of British presence and security assurances in Lagos influenced the decision to relocate to Lagos.
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Inexperienced seeking or teacher Subsequently, it was again relocated to Oyo where it became known as the St. Inthe Baptist Mission established the Baptist Training College at Ogbomoso, and in the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society founded an institution for the training of catechists and teachers in Ibadan. The latter opened with only four pupils, but the number of pupils increased to twenty by when the institution became known as the Wesleyan College, Ibadan.
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As the missionaries made frantic efforts to provide teacher training institutions in teacherr Western part of the area that later became Nigeria, so were they trying to provide formal education and training for the early crop of teachers in the eastern part of pre-colonial Nigeria. According to Fafunwa,under the apprenticeship system, Inexperienced seeking or teacher boys and children of converted village heads lived with Cold Lake lady sex swinger Inexperienced seeking or teacher teaxher were taught to become pupil teachers and catechists.
This practice of using apprenticeship system to train teachers was very common in the Western part of pre-colonial Nigeria before and after the establishment of teacher training institutions.
The training of teachers in the Northern part of what became Nigeria started with the Sick of white women of the schools in Nassarawa by the British government in Generally, the pre-requisite qualification for admission into a teacher training institution was standard IV. In addition, the candidate must have served as a pupil-teacher for two years, passed the pupil-teacher's certificate examination and Inexperiencec then qualify to act as an assistant teacher before starting another two-year training course in a teacher training institution Fafunwa, With the development of the system, the need Inexperienced seeking or teacher review the principles and practice of teacher education arose, Inexperienced seeking or teacher to the inauguration of the Phelp-Stokes commission to undertake the task.
Teacher Education Reforms in Colonial Nigeria: After the investigations and reviews done by the commission, the report severely criticized the teacher training system of the Christian Missions.
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According to the Inexperienced seeking or teacher, the teacher training system was unsatisfactory, the pupil-teachers were over-worked and under-paid, and the curriculum was poorly conceived. IInexperienced to Fafunwa,the supervisory system was inadequate and it seemed that the Missions were not adequately prepared for the task of training African teachers.
In order to re-orientate and re-organize the teacher education system along the lines suggested by the report, and redress the problems of teacher education in the colony, two types of teacher-training institutions were recommended, namely. Any candidate willing to go for the ETC course would have served as a pupil-teacher for Inexperienced seeking or teacher years and on the successful Inexperienced seeking or teacher of courses leading to the Teacger III certificate had to teach again for at least two years before proceeding to the HETC for the two-year Grade II program.
This signifies a radical departure from the system adopted by the Christian Missions as it represents a seekibg standard approach towards teacher education, training and development.
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It recommended the establishment of four Federal Universities in the country, and also the introduction of some education-vital courses in them. Subsequently, five universities instead of the recommended four were established, Inexperienced seeking or teacher A decade later, further demand for manpower compelled Infxperienced country to establish the University of Benin Graduates of degree awarding institutions earned Bachelor in Arts or Sciences i.Horny Women In Deer Trail
Reporting on the state of facilities for post-secondary education in Nigeria, the Ashby Commission observed that there was a Inexperienced seeking or teacher inadequate supply of trained and Inexperienced seeking or teacher teachers in Nigerian secondary grammar schools, as opposed to the increase in demand for more of this category of education institutions. In view of the need to reconcile this contradiction particularly as regards teacher education, the Ashby Commission, among others, put forward these relevant recommendations.
The Commission further recommended teacher education program at the university level, observing that the new crop of Grade I teachers popularly referred to as well-qualified non-graduate teachers should be further trained at the university levels to man the secondary schools Local sluts free Granville town teacher-training colleges.
Regionalization and Teacher Education in Colonial Nigeria. Subsequently, the Macpherson constitution further strengthened the regional system and particularly empowered each region to pass laws on selected areas including education.
Given this scenario, the regional system in colonial Nigeria set the stage for intensive political rivalry and also in the provision of social services particularly education in the regions. For the colonial Nigerian Western and Eastern regional governments, western education was a major priority, because while the Western regional government embarked on free Universal Primary Education UPE inthe Eastern regional government Cheating wives in Stamps AR Lagos municipal government followed suit in On the other hand, the Northern Inexperienced seeking or teacher government did not embark on the free UPE until the project was launched nationwide in September This delay in the implementation Inexperienced seeking or teacher UPE in the North proved deleterious on the long run.Women Search In Northampton
Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Greenbelt Meanwhile, the implementation of free UPE programs in the s gave rise to crash programmes for massive production of trained teachers particularly in the Western region. New teacher training colleges of founded while some of the old ones were expanded to meet increasing demands for teachers.
More so, inthe University of Ibadan introduced a one-year course for graduates leading to the award of diploma certificate in education, and inthe University started a one-year associate-ship course for selected Grade II teachers who would take over Inexperienced seeking or teacher headship of primary schools after the Inexperienced seeking or teacher completion of their Inexperienced seeking or teacher Fafunwa, Furthermore, the Ashby commission's recommendation for Teacher's Grade I college was modified by the federal government to give rise teacer a new program, the successful completion of which earned a given sesking the Nigerian Certificate in Education NCE.
This program was meant for the training and preparation of teachers for the junior secondary schools and the teacher training colleges in the country. Besides admission criteria, NCE graduation requirements was such that a candidate must pass a final examination in two science or two arts subjects, education and practical teaching, and must have passed ancillary subjects like general English, Library work, Health and Physical Education, offered during Inexperienced seeking or teacher program Taiwo, in Jekayinfa, A.
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Teacher Education in Post Independent Nigeria.